الأربعاء 23 مايو 2018, 14:02
#1
avatar
أستاذة لطور الثانوي
أستاذة لطور الثانوي
الجنس : انثى
تاريخ التسجيل : 26/09/2017
المساهمات : 36
النقاط : 1741
افتراضي موضوع: شرح درس direct and indirect speech

الجزء الاول
direct and indirect speech
نقصد ب direct speech عملية اعادة الاقوال او الكلام مباشرة كما نطق به صاحبه دون القيام باي تغييرات على الكلمات والجمل ولازم هنا نستعملو
فعل مثل say - tell - asks نسميه introductory verb
قوسين صغيرتين "......"
نقطتان :
مثال
he says : " she is a teacher ..............يقول انه معلم
نقصد ب indirect speech عملية اعادة ما قاله شخص من كلام او حديث وتقوم بنقله الى شخص اخر ولكن هنا فيه تغييرات تحدث على مستوى الزمن الذي نصرف فيه الفعل . فيه ايضا تغييرات على مستوى personal pronouns مثل i - فيه تغيرات على مستوى deminstrative pronouns مثل this - that وغيره من التغيرات التي سنراها لاحقا وهنا لازم نتخلصو من القوسين الصغيرتين يعني نحذفوهم وتزيد تحذف النقطتين : ونعوضوهم بكلمة that مثال
he says : " she is a teacher.
he says that she is a teacher ......يقول انه معلم
كما ترون فقد حذفنا القوسين والنقطتين وعوضناها بكلمة that
ملاحظة
عندما يكون introductory verb تاع direct speech في المضارع هنا لا يتغير زمن الفعل تاع indirect
مثال
she says : i bought a car.
she says that she bought a car.
الفعل bought لم نغير زمنه لان says راهو في المضارع ولكن تغير i الى she
عندما تستعمل indirect speech تخيل انك تتحدث مع شخص اخر وتنقل له ما يقوله احدهم هاذي هي الطريقة ففي المثال الاول الفتاة تتكلم عن نفسها لهذا استخدمت i ولكن في indirect speech تحول i الى she لانني اتحدث مع شخص اخر فيجب ان استعمل she فانا احدث صديقي عن تلك الفتاة وما قالته فلازم نستعمل she


indirect speech
كلمة will تصبح would مع جميع الضماىر
he said : i will visit france
he said that he would visit france
she said that they would buy a car
they said : she will learn english
they said that she would learn english
كلمة can تصيح could مع كل الضماىر
he said : you can help her
he said that you could help her
she said : we can push the car
she said that we could push the car
كلمة may تصبح might مع كل الضماىر
he said : he may arrive late
ha said that he might arrive late
he said : i may travel to france
he said that he might travel to france
she said : the cat may eat the fish
she said that the cat might eat the fish]

بريزنت بيرفيكت يتحول الى باست بيرفيكت
present perfect = have/ has + stem + ed
stem = verb without( to )
to play...............regular verb
i / you / we / they have played
she / he / it has played
to speak.............irregular verb
present perfect = have/ has + past participle
i / you / they / we have spoken
she / he / it has spoken
past perfect = had + stem +ed .......regular verbs
i / you / we / they / she / he / it had played
play - played - played
past perfect = had + past participle .............irregular verbs
i / you / we / they / she / he / it had spoken
speak - spoke - spoken
he said : " i have played football "
he said that he had played football .
play - played - played...لعب
he said : "pupils have crossed the road "
he said that pupils had crossed the road .
cross - crossed - crossed ........عبر الطريق
he said : "the teacher has arrived late "
he said that the teacher had arrived late.
arrive - arrived - arrived............وصل
he said : " the cat has stolen the fish"
he said that the cat had stolen the fish.
s teal - stole - stolen ...........سرق
he said : " we have visited america "
he said that we had visited america .
visit - visited - visited .........زار
he said : "she has bought a car "
he said that she had bought a car .
buy - bought - bought ............اشترى
he said : " you have left your book "
he said that you had left your book
leave - left - left ...........ترك

المضارع في دايراكت سبيتش يتحول الى الماضي في الايندايرانت سبيتش .
present simple...................past simple
he said : " i want to fight corruption "........اريد محاربة الرشوة
he said that he wanted to fight corruption
he said : " nepotism is not acceptable ".....المعريفة غير مقبولة
he said that nepotism was not acceptable
he said :" Algeria attracts investmens..الجزاىر تجذب الاستثمارات
he said that Algeria attracted investements
he said :" laws are important".......القوانين مهمة جدا
he said that laws were important
he said :" the bank lend money".....البنك يسلف اموال
he said that the bank lent money
lend - lent - lent..........irregular verb
هذه بعض الامثلة مهم لازم تعرفو تصريف الافعال في الماضي المضارع حتى تسهل العملية
to be in present
i 'm
you are
he/ she/it is
they / we / you are
الافعال في المضارع تصرف باظافة s في اخر الفعل
to play
i play
you play
he / she / it plays
they / we / you play
الافعال في المضارع تصرف باظافة ed في اخر الفعل اذا كان غير شاذ اما اذا كان فعل شاذ لازم تحفظو قلىمة الافعال الشاذة
to be in past simple
i was
you were
he / she / it was
they / we you were

الأربعاء 23 مايو 2018, 14:04
#2
avatar
عضو مشارك
عضو مشارك
الجنس : ذكر
تاريخ التسجيل : 12/03/2018
المساهمات : 248
النقاط : 1207
افتراضي موضوع: رد: شرح درس direct and indirect speech

مرسي




الانتقال السريع

الساعة معتمدة بتوقيت الجزائر Gmt+1 . الساعة الآن :
التعليقات المنشورة لا تعبر عن رأي منتدى المسيلة الجزائري ولا نتحمل أي مسؤولية قانونية حيال ذلك (ويتحمل كاتبها مسؤولية النشر)
جميع الحقوق محفوظة 2017/2018
تنويه: ليكن في علم الجميع أن الاستايل مدفوع